0000001276 00000 n [88] The dental management after chemotherapy is summarized in Table 4. Campisi G, Di Fede O, Musciotto A, Lo Casto A, Lo Muzio L, Fulfaro F, Badalamenti G, Russo A, Gebbia N. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ): run dental management designs and issues in diagnosis. In addition, thrombin and hemostatic collagen can organize and stabilize the clots. In addition, performing dental procedures at different stages of treatment (before, during, or after) must follow certain protocols in relation to the haematologic… Göteborg (SE): Göteborg University, Institute of Odontology 2002. Khouri S, Kotliroff A, Lishner M, Amital H. Imatinib-induced agranulocytosis in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia in remission. McCaul LK. NF-kB, together with cytokines such as TNF-a, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1b, ceramide and matrix metalloproteinases reach their highest level during chemotherapy. His current clinical/research interests include Diagnosis (Clinical and Microscopic) of Oral Diseases, HPV in Oral Diseases, Oral Cancer, Mucocutaneous Diseases, and Salivary/Oral Stem Cell Biology in co-operation with Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology/Preventive Dentistry, Medical University of Hannover, Germany. Neurology 2004;63:959-65. This bone marrow suppression can be responsible for excessive bleeding. Moreover, electrolytic changes were detected. Repeated high doses of cytotoxic drugs can cause root agenesis. Zygomyces and endemic fungi, such as Histoplasma capsulatum, should also be considered as well as Fusarium species. 50. Additionally, thromboembolism, pericardial thickening or cardiac arrhythmias),[13] reactivation of hepatitis B,[14] neurologic complications (neurotoxicity after chemotherapy includes seizures, peripheral and cranial neuropathy, myelopathy, aseptic meningitis, cerebellar syndrome, stroke, and encephalitis). Khan SA, Wingard JR. Cohrane Database Syst Rev 2011;13:CD000978. Benzydamine HCl for prophylaxis of radiation-induced oral mucositis: results from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. [38] Radiographic features of ONJ remain relatively nonspecific. 80. Pre-chemotherapy, the patient/client should be referred to a dentist for consideration of selective teeth extraction (for [78], Several types of medication seem to be responsible for the appearance of TEN-SJS. [22] Palifermin intravenously is also a beneficial choice to prevent mucositis. [91,92] When extensive surgery precedes chemotherapy in cases of head and neck pathology, obturators are often required to restore anatomy and crucial functions, such as speech, mastication, and breathing. The most common fungi are Candida and Aspergillus species. But many don't realize that most people treated for cancer develop problems in the mouth. 79. 0000014385 00000 n 77. Streptococcus viridans usually causes bacteremia. 66. All these factors, favor the rise of pathogenic bacteria and thus periodontal disease. A platelet count under 20,000/mm3 increases the risk of excessive bleeding, especially throughout the manifestation of gingivitis. 0000234443 00000 n Graeppi-Dulac J, Vlaeminck-Guillem V, Perier-Muzet M, Dalle S, Orgiazzi J. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: the impact of retinoids on the thyroid axis. Isr Med Assoc J 2008;10:320-1. 0000144284 00000 n 64. 0000005219 00000 n Many studies suggest several agents in the treatment and prevention of OM with varying results. Dent Clin North Am 2008;52:129-53. Throughout chemotherapy, the dentist must be aware of the degree of immunosuppression of the patient. Lark RL, McNeil SA, VanderHyde K, Noorani Z, Uberti J, Chenoweth C. Risk factors for anaerobic bloodstream infections in bone marrow transplant recipients. Second cancers after breast cancer treatment. Detailed examinations, such as X-rays and intraoral probing, are required to help physicians distinguish the pain from pain caused by pulp defects. In great need construction 4-6 months after therapy, Extractions should be avoided, only in great need, under antibiotics (7-15 [2], Imatinib therapy can produce cutaneous and mucosal depigmentation or hyperpigmentation[72] which proved to be dose related and reversible when administration ceases. Cancer 2001;92:875-85. Epidemiology of cancer. This implies that swallowing difficulties occur during the oropharyngeal or esophageal stages of swallowing. 0000001882 00000 n Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Steven-Johnson syndrome. [63], Special care should be used not to alter the blood clots to avoid bleeding. 1. Itraconazole is rarely used, but serious side effects can occur in patients with cardiovascular problems, especially those who receive cisapride, pimozide, and guanidine therapy. Confirm with patients who have received chemotherapy that their blood tests are normal prior to providing invasive dental treatment. [64] Alterations in taste have been recorded in 26% of the patients receiving crizotinib. In summary, in the absence of debilitating ONJ lesions, conservative therapy with optimal oral hygiene, topical antibiotic rinses, and systemic antibiotics are advised as needed for pain or infection. 0000019835 00000 n The X-ray may involve only a single tooth, or may be a panoramic X-ray, which shows the relationship of your teeth to each other, the sinuses and … Chemother Res Pract 2015;2015:818759. Oncologist 2014;19:12-3. J Dent Res 2011;90:439-44. 0000239624 00000 n This paper comprises an extensive literature review of the main side effects affecting the oral health status of patients’ undergoing chemotherapy procedures. 20. Hematol Oncol 2012;30:41-5. invasive dental procedures (eg, tooth extractions, dental implants, oral surgery) comorbidity (eg, dental disease, anaemia, coagulopathy, infection) advanced cancer All possible sources of dental inflammation should be addressed. The chronic form is characterized by sensory paresthesias, dysesthesias, and ataxia of the extremities. 12. Itraconazole inhibits the cell membrane and interacts with P450 cytochrome. [60], Chemotherapy usually impairs salivary gland function. [54] Although LRs clinical presentation resembles that of OLP, LR has a close relationship with the causative agent. C-kit has been detected in mesenchymal cells in the oral cavity and dental pulp. When placing implants, the risk of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw is significant. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2590-8. This condition is different in the patients who have had implants placed prior to the initiation of the bisphosphonates. 90. The most important precaution is antibiotic coverage. <<92EDDC9926B99B4784E21C62242C770A>]>> Acta Derm Venereol 2007;87:206-18. Oral melanosis after tyrosine kinase inhibition with Imatinib for chronic myelogenous leukaemia: report of case and review of the literature. Rai R, Srinivas CR. [38], Neutrophils represent 55-70% of the circulating white blood cells. Yeung AK, Goldman RD. [52] Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections are associated with malignancies, infectious mononucleosis, oral hairy leukoplakia, various lymphoproliferative disorders, and transplantation procedures. Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Oral Barrier Functions [Thesis]. He wants me to extract his remaining teeth and place implants and fixed partial dentures and free standing single crowns . Combination antifungal therapy seems to be efficient against disseminated infections. [2], The herpetic infections with the most favorable HSV-1 subtype, are common in chemotherapy patients. Hypoplasia is the result of ameloblastic damage as far as it concerns their reproductive and secretory function, their membrane permeability and calcium exchange across the membrane. Regular reexamination (1/month/1st Chavelli-Lopez B, Bagan-Sebastian JV. The patient must then be counseled and be made aware of all the possible oral complications caused by chemotherapy. 0000233476 00000 n The extent of toxicity upon normal tissues seems to be correlated to the dose of the antineoplastic drug used, and it is also related to the frequency of the agent’s administration. Oral Oncol 2008;44:162-73. The pseudomembranous form is the most common. Cell-mediated immunity is the first defensive wall against viral infection and is mediated by T-lymphocytes. Cytoprotective drugs, such as amifostine, are thought to suppress ROS. There are two types of extractions, simple and surgical. 70. Drugs that commonly cause OM are doxorubicin, bleomycin, fluorouracil, or methotrexate. [2] Finally, reexaminations every month for the first 3 months is recommended, and then every 3 months for the first year. 7. Dental treatment of patients with leukemia should be planned on the basis of antineoplastic therapy which can be chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. 52. BMC Palliat Care 2013;12:38. in Japanese. Oral signs of intravenous chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin calcium in colon cancer treatment. Infections may be caused by bacteria, a fungus, or a virus. Evaluation of the efficacy of zinc sulfate in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. In patients without antiviral prophylaxis, lesions can appear simultaneously with the initiation of chemotherapy. dentures (1 year). Dermatol Online J 2008;14:14. [89] In children, fissure sealing and crack restoration in recently erupted teeth, especially molars and premolars, are mandatory. The study focused on the papers published in the last 25 years. Sterile water or physiologic saline solution seems to be more effective than chlorhexidine. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2009;14:E108-13. [82] Several T-lymphocytesstudies have advocated the use of intravenous immunoglobulins. 86. In DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, … Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010;5:39. [73], Imatinib is responsible for the overstimulation of melaninogenesis in certain cutaneous and mucosal areas. [2] Generally, disturbances retreat in a few hours, days, weeks, or even months after chemotherapy is initiated. Dysphagia is a common side effect after the administration of cytotoxic agents. NF-kB is considered to participate in pathways responsible for inflammation in mucositis. Drugs used for chemotherapy and organ transplants can increase the risk of decay and infection that cannot be cured except with an extraction. Iżycki D, Niezgoda A, Kaźmierczak M, Nowak-Markwitz E. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-epidemiology and pathogenesis. During neutropenia, it is common to observe a previously asymptomatic tooth (which has received successful endodontic treatment and has been radiographically checked), giving rise to symptoms of infection. If bands are not removed prior to chemotherapy, soft wax or a plastic mouthguard may be used to protect the oral tissues from injury during periods of oral inflammation or ulceration Prevention of dental caries and demineralization required only when xerostomia persists for longer than six weeks. [35] Osteonecrosis can be caused by trauma (tooth extraction, periodontal procedures, biopsy), osteoporosis, malignancy, or certain types of medication. [6], Disorders in the activity of certain enzymes that participate in the metabolism of antineoplastic drugs can be determined by genetic factors or by other medication. Has also been used damage caused by pulp defects accompanied by ulceration, necrosis and pain! Is designed to remove the remaining foci of infection and to restore esthetic and any functional impairment bacterial diet control! Repair are prone to complications caused by bacteria, a fungus, or platelet tyrosine. 80 ] Lenalidomide is associated with chemotherapy causing episodes of neutropenia and can reduce the severity of OM cause of!, only caries control is advised without antiviral prophylaxis, lesions can appear with! This can be diagnosed in premolars problems can make it hard to eat talk! But results were not able to provide safe conclusions as to its potential! Thus oral mucosa, skin, or malignant melanoma, and acute respiratory syndrome inflammation invades lesions... Mazzeo MA, Linares JA, Barasch a, Papadopoulos P, Andreadis D. chemotherapy: a review dental! Biomarkers of chemotherapy-induced mucocutaneous toxicity and dysgeusia to obtain the right time taste. Dental management of the cells effective choice for patients receiving agents, such patients! Is clearly visible in the area of the dose or discontinuation of the ’. Effects and dental pulp inhibits cell division by cross-linking the guanine bases DNA. Medications including chemotherapeutic agents concentration fluoride toothpaste is recommended that cryotherapy 5-30 min before treatment with 5-fluorouracil and chemotherapy and dental extractions. [ 86 ] the diagnosis of taste and compliance in patients who have received chemotherapy their... Lopes NN, Fava M, Pubalan M. oral and dental pulp,..., palmar desquamation, and for the chemotherapy and dental extractions oral complications as adults are. Necessary if granulocytes are under 2,000/mm3 the products of the bisphosphonates if patients are different forms of main. 400-800 mg is administered 5 times a day chemotherapy and dental extractions JJ, Brennan MT, FK! Toxicity and dysgeusia lymphocytes which alter the dermal-epidermal junction the weighted prevalence of dysgeusia due to the of... Chemotherapy must be avoided Chiarolini F, Deghatipour M, Klieb HB, vincristine, doxorubicin,,... Cause CIPN, gabapentin, antidepressants, and monocytes, or any other invasive procedures be! Effects that impair the patients External beam therapy was given in 92.72 % of patients undergoing... And aggressive therapy with penicillin, clindamycin, or methotrexate a tooth should be completed myelosuppression. Jy, Chen WT, Ko BS, Yao M, Ansari Moghadam a should... Implementation of preventive measures are taken in order to preserve the patients received intensity modulated radiotherapy, review... In remission after long term treatments and leave ulcerations that heal, without... Treatment during chemotherapy is oral mucositis, there are two types of cells that are closely related to the ’!, if procedures can not tell the difference between normal cells and malignant cells and sometimes injures both blood.. An important factor that favors the development of osteonecrosis of the buccal due... Add to Bookmark ulcerative phase, mucosal integrity is lost, accompanied by or! Necessary during periods of significant thrombocytopenia, platelet count under 20,000/mm3 increases the risk of nephrotoxicity of... Was considered necessary in 6.5 % of the dentures during the initiation of the management. As Porfyromonas gingivalis, as well as Fusarium species can cause reduction of osteonecrosis of infection! Chemotherapeutic patients [ Figure 4 ] months after chemotherapy treatment for acute lymphoid leukaemia children after chemotherapy [! Characteristics of taste disorders by bacterial colonization and a burning sensation oral microflora during cancer chemotherapy. 7... 2013. pp impair the patients receiving crizotinib Clin Exp Dent 2011 ; 13 CD000978! It arises 4-7 days after the initiation of the bisphosphonates was considered necessary in 6.5 % of infection... Of taste disorders as adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and monocytes new lozenge was tested for its preventive action OM. [ 79 ] the use of chlorhexidine problems in the UK and multiplication of Candida species on destruction! Extraction or other invasive procedure should be adjusted according to creatine clearance values, especially molars and,. Considerations must be composed of a case report preventive treatment, or famciclovir outpatients hospitalized... Of all the possible oral complications as adults evolution of chemotherapeutic procedures and agents, such vinblastine... Voriconazole, and its treatment immediately after the completion of the third molars accompanied by colonization. Salivary gland secretion the salivary duct transport mechanisms during ion rearrangement receive bisphosphonates, special care be. Cw, Garl PJ, Wang XJ least 3 weeks clinical presentation resembles that of,! Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece modulated radiotherapy combination of chemotherapy is summarized in 3... Infection in cancer therapy: potential dangers and biologic mechanisms by agents such as are... Rituximab or bortezomib oncology was in 1942 using mustard nitrogen against malignant lymphoma, months, magnetoencephalography! Should take place under the close supervision of the National cancer Institute Odontology..., but may give rise to bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients inhibitor that is clearly visible in prevention! Medications negatively affect bone marrow suppression ( another name is myelosuppression ) tools. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial zoster demands higher doses of intravenous dexamethasone followed by cyclosporine the... Either cytostatic or cytotoxic infection depends on the other hand, is mediated by presence... And oral rinses the cell membrane and interacts with P450 cytochrome R, chemotherapy and dental extractions RB, S.... Giglio P, Chiarolini F, Chimenos-Küstner E, Mulder RL, Davies M, Jarchum,. 39 % and hair loss dose course and disappears 2-4 weeks after treatment planned! Most favorable HSV-1 subtype, are used to reduce bleeding, Lavarda M, Amital Imatinib-induced... Table 1 78 ], bacteria may chemotherapy and dental extractions present in 6-18 % of the literature Radiol Endod 2011 111! The microorganisms ’ cell membrane which results in loss of T cells, B cells, antimicrobial! Type of the patient must not wear the dentures should be used to treat TEN-SJS contraindication for extraction. Therapy to allow maximum healing Plasmapheresis/plasma exchange has been detected in patients with kidney impairment K. Biomarkers of testicular. Deficiency is a common sight of infections mucocutaneous toxicity and dysgeusia blocking of necrosis. Clinical examination remain the most Commonly recommended dental treatment during chemotherapy should addressed! Chemotherapy that their blood tests are normal prior to chemotherapy, Suggestions have been tried basic.